The University of Pittsburg (led by Dr. Stephen Badylak) has recently received an MTEC award to treat volumetric muscle loss (VML). Surgical mesh materials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) can promote functional tissue remodeling by mechanisms that include stem cell maturation and differentiation and modulation of the host immune response toward a regulatory, pro-healing phenotype. From 2011 to 2015, the team conducted a thirteen-patient human cohort study in which ECM surgical meshes (including XenMatrix™) were used to treat VML. Results showed significant restoration of vascularized, innervated, and functional skeletal muscle with a marked improvement in the quality of life for all patients. In this MTEC-funded project, the team will: 1) Determine efficacy of an antibiotic-coated ECM surgical mesh (XenMatrix™ AB) for the promotion of muscle regeneration in human patients, and 2) Evaluate alternative antibiotic coatings in preclinical rodent models.